How RAM Works

Memory Modules

Memory chips in desktop computers originally used a pin configuration called dual inline package (DIP). This pin configuration could be soldered into holes on the computer's motherboard or plugged into a socket that was soldered on the motherboard. This method worked fine when computers typically operated on a couple of megabytes or less of RAM, but as the need for memory grew, the number of chips needing space on the motherboard increased.

The solution was to place the memory chips, along with all of the support components, on a separate printed circuit board (PCB) that could then be plugged into a special connector ( memory bank ) on the motherboard. Most of these chips use a small outline J-lead (SOJ) pin configuration, but quite a few manufacturers use the thin small outline package (TSOP) configuration as well. The key difference between these newer pin types and the original DIP configuration is that SOJ and TSOP chips are surface-mounted to the PCB. In other words, the pins are soldered directly to the surface of the board, not inserted in holes or sockets.

Memory chips are normally only available as part of a card called a module . You've probably seen memory listed as 8x32 or 4x16. These numbers represent the number of the chips multiplied by the capacity of each individual chip, which is measured in megabits (Mb), or one million bits. Take the result and divide it by eight to get the number of megabytes on that module. For example, 4x32 means that the module has four 32-megabit chips. Multiply 4 by 32 and you get 128 megabits. Since we know that a byte has 8 bits, we need to divide our result of 128 by 8. Our result is 16 megabytes!

The type of board and connector used for RAM in desktop computers has evolved over the past few years. The first types were proprietary, meaning that different computer manufacturers developed memory boards that would only work with their specific systems. Then came SIMM , which stands for single in-line memory module . This memory board used a 30-pin connector and was about 3.5 x .75 inches in size (about 9 x 2 cm). In most computers, you had to install SIMMs in pairs of equal capacity and speed. This is because the width of the bus is more than a single SIMM. For example, you would install two 8-megabyte (MB) SIMMs to get 16 megabytes total RAM. Each SIMM could send 8 bits of data at one time, while the system bus could handle 16 bits at a time. Later SIMM boards, slightly larger at 4.25 x 1 inch (about 11 x 2.5 cm), used a 72-pin connector for increased bandwidth and allowed for up to 256 MB of RAM.

From the top: SIMM, DIMM and SODIMM memory modules

As processors grew in speed and bandwidth capability, the industry adopted a new standard in dual in-line memory module (DIMM). With a whopping 168-pin connector and a size of 5.4 x 1 inch (about 14 x 2.5 cm), DIMMs range in capacity from 8 MB to 128 MB per module and can be installed singly instead of in pairs. Most PC memory modules operate at 3.3 volts, while Mac systems typically use 5 volts. Another standard, Rambus in-line memory module (RIMM), is comparable in size and pin configuration to DIMM but uses a special memory bus to greatly increase speed.

Many brands of notebook computers use proprietary memory modules, but several manufacturers use RAM based on the small outline dual in-line memory module (SODIMM) configuration. SODIMM cards are small, about 2 x 1 inch (5 x 2.5 cm), and have 144 pins. Capacity ranges from 16 MB to 512 MB per module. An interesting fact about the Apple iMac desktop computer is that it uses SODIMMs instead of the traditional DIMMs.


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Table of Contents:
Introduction to How RAM Works
RAM Basics
Memory Modules
Error Checking
Common RAM Types
How Much Do You Need?
How to Install RAM